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Blackbeardsgoldfish

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A thread for news, updates and discussions about Germany's Energy Supply and Generation.
 
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Blackbeardsgoldfish

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Germany could replace half its imported Russian gas this year, industry group says​

FRANKFURT, March 18 (Reuters) - Germany could replace around half of its natural gas imports from Russia this year in the event of a delivery stoppage, utility industry association BDEW said on Friday.

The group that represents 1,900 operators in gas, power and water supply said that according to its sources, Russia's share of Germany's gas supply in Jan-March, which is not officially published, stood at 40%.

Estimates from analysts and utilities last December had pegged the share at over 50%.

"As of today, around 50% of Russian natural gas can be replaced or substituted in the short term. This corresponds to about 20% of the annual gas requirement in Germany," said BDEW managing director Kerstin Andreae.

She did not say how the Russian gas could be replaced, but Germany has access to electricity derived from coal, nuclear energy, wind and solar sources. Some manufacturing cannot easily switch from gas, however.


Aware that any import ban, prompted by Russia's invasion of Ukraine, would have significant consequences for the German economy, the industry sought to lessen its current dependence on fossil raw materials from Russia, she added.

A target to fill Germany's underground gas storage capacity of 24 billion cubic metres to the brim by the beginning of next winter would also become questionable, BDEW said.


Domestic gas use amounted to 100 billion bcm last year, down 6.4% from 2020. read more

BDEW said it currently sees potential to reduce and substitute gas use by 15% in the home heating sector while small businesses and service industries might save 10%, and heavy industry 8%, and more could be achieved in future.

In power generation, the study saw possible reductions of gas burning by around 36%, but no more. Combined power and heating plants must continue to run in order to bring heat arising from the process to customers, it said.


The government has revved up plans to bring liquefied natural gas (LNG) on board ships into the country but currently there are no terminals to receive them because of the legacy dependency on pipeline gas.

The crisis has raised the need to push ahead with wind and solar electricity, insulating buildings to save heat, power grid expansion and scaling up renewable hydrogen, BDEW said.

https://www.reuters.com/business/en...sian-gas-this-year-industry-group-2022-03-18/
 

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After journeying to Qatar and the UAE, Habeck is hopeful about alternatives to Putin's gas

https://www.tagesspiegel.de/politik...eber-alternativen-zu-putins-gas/28176440.html
(Article is in german)

Edit: A short summary in English

After the Russian invasion of Ukraine, the german minister for economic affairs has decided to move away from russian gas and diversify the sources for imported gas. So far, his travels have left him feeling optimistic.

Alongside the main economic focus of his diplomacy, human rights have also been a substantial factor in the negotiations, as the nations capable of exporting sufficient amounts of gas often have a record of severe human rights violations.

Natural gas should however be only a temporary solution, as the ultimate goal will be energy won from green hydrogen and renewable energies.
 
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They're still looking toward fossil fuel for energy that won't solve anything in the long run. I think it's necessary to think bigger. I wish it was mandatory to have solar panels on on all rooftops and all exess energy go to industrial use of sorts, or commercial. the state could give tax relief for certain % of contribution that could finance the investment.

Consumers always end up having to bear the expenses one way or another, that is why no government would easily give up taxing citizens for green investment.
 

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They're still looking toward fossil fuel for energy that won't solve anything in the long run. I think it's necessary to think bigger. I wish it was mandatory to have solar panels on on all rooftops and all exess energy go to industrial use of sorts, or commercial. the state could give tax relief for certain % of contribution that could finance the investment.

Consumers always end up having to bear the expenses one way or another, that is why no government would easily give up taxing citizens for green investment.
....getting off fossil fuel and nuclear caused their problem --as Trump told them so a few years ago
 

Blackbeardsgoldfish

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They're still looking toward fossil fuel for energy that won't solve anything in the long run. I think it's necessary to think bigger. I wish it was mandatory to have solar panels on on all rooftops and all exess energy go to industrial use of sorts, or commercial. the state could give tax relief for certain % of contribution that could finance the investment.

Consumers always end up having to bear the expenses one way or another, that is why no government would easily give up taxing citizens for green investment.
Solar panels, wind energy, hydropower, a treadmill even, all of this needs to be given more incentives, for businesses and individuals.

It's beyond me how so many see the green industry as something threatening, when there's so much potential for economic growth connected to it
 

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Solar panels, wind energy, hydropower, a treadmill even, all of this needs to be given more incentives, for businesses and individuals.

It's beyond me how so many see the green industry as something threatening, when there's so much potential for economic growth connected to it
There is one simple answer, economics. Someone needs to keep making money from anything, and if taxpayers ever become net contributors to energy and don’t pay for electricity someone is going to lose a lot of money. I think the US is an example of this. People with PV are not allowed to deliver to the grid.
 

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There is one simple answer, economics. Someone needs to keep making money from anything, and if taxpayers ever become net contributors to energy and don’t pay for electricity someone is going to lose a lot of money. I think the US is an example of this. People with PV are not allowed to deliver to the grid.
With solar panels becoming ever cheaper to produce and install, the near self-sufficiency of households will turn into an inevitable reality though, add to that the increasing unwillingness of the taxpayer to fund fossil fuel industries, this is going to be a fundamental shift in energy generation…
I’ll be looking into this a bit further and try to compile some data on it all.
 

Blackbeardsgoldfish

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There is one simple answer, economics. Someone needs to keep making money from anything, and if taxpayers ever become net contributors to energy and don’t pay for electricity someone is going to lose a lot of money. I think the US is an example of this. People with PV are not allowed to deliver to the grid.
With solar panels becoming ever cheaper to produce and install, the near self-sufficiency of households will turn into an inevitable reality though, add to that the increasing unwillingness of the taxpayer to fund fossil fuel industries, this is going to be a fundamental shift in energy generation…
I’ll be looking into this a bit further and try to compile some data on it all.
Going to get to this asap, sorry for my late reply, just wanted to let you know.
 

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Going to get to this asap, sorry for my late reply, just wanted to let you know.
In 2020, Europe in total consumed 541.1Bil m³ of gas, which is down from the 553.5Bil m³ consumption of 2019. Out of which, Germany consumed 86.5 Billion m³ of natural gas, down from 88.7Bil m³ in 2019.

In 2020, Europe imported a total of 326.1Bil m³ of natural gas, out of which 211.3Bil m³ were imported by Pipeline, with a further 114.8Bil m³ being LNG. In total, Europe exported 5.6Bil m³ via LNG, which was also the total export of natural gas.

German pipeline imports are distributed between 13.0Bil m³ from the Netherlands, 31.2Bil m³ from Norway and 1.6Bil m³ from other Europe, but it's largest supplier by far is Russia, at 56.3Bil m³ in 2020, all in all 102.0Bil m³ of gas were imported in 2020. To contrast this, France imported 2.6Bil m³ of gas from Russia, Italy 19.6Bil m³ and Turkey 15.6Bil m³. Outside BEL, FR, IT, NL, ES, TR, UKR and the UK, the rest of the EU imported 55.2Bil m³ of russian gas, less than Germany(!).

The total production of gas in Europe amounted to 218.6Bil m³, of which the top three producers were Norway, with 111.5Bil m³, the UK, with 39.5Bil m³, and the Netherlands, with 20.0Bil m³. Denmark produced 1.4Bil m³, and Germany 4.5Bil m³.

The biggest producer of gas remains the US, with 914.6Bil m³ produced in 2020, down from 930.0Bil m³ in 2019. Russia occupies the second place, with a production of 638.5Bil m³ in 2020, down from 679Bil m³ in 2019. Number three is Iran, with a production of 250.8Bil m³ in 2020, up from the 241.4Bil m³ produced in 2019.

By continent, North America produced 1109.9Bil m³, with Canada producing 165.2Bil m³ and Mexico 30.1Bil m³, figures for US in the upper paragraph. South & Central America produced 152.9Bil m³, with Argentina producing the most at 38.3Bil m³, followed by Trinidad & Tobago at 29.5Bil m³. The CIS states produced 802.4Bil m³, Turkmenistan being second with 59.0Bil m³, and Uzbekistan third with 47.1Bil m³, Russian figures mentioned above. The middle east produced a grand total of 686.6Bil m³, Qatar coming second at 171.3Bil m³ and Saudi Arabia third with 112.1Bil m³, Iran is first and figures are above. Africa produced a total of 231.3Bil m³, Algeria coming in first with 81.5Bil m³, Egypt second with 58.5Bilm³ and Nigeria third with 49.4Bil m³. The Asia-Pacific space produced 652.1Bil m³ of gas, China coming in first at 194.0Bil m³, Australia second with 142.5Bil m³ and Indonesia third at 73.2Bil m³. All figures are for 2020, in which the world total production was 3853.7Bil m³, down from 3976.2Bil m³ in 2019.

In terms of reserves, the most proven reserves at the end of 2020 were found in Russia, which possesses 37.4Tril m³ of proven reserves. Iran comes second, possessing 32.1Tril m³, and Qatar third with 24.7Tril m³. Turkmenistan has 13.6Tril m³ of proven reserves, the US 12.6Tril m³ and China 8.4Tril m³. Europe in total has 3.2Tril m³ of proven reserves, and the global total is 188.1Tril m³.

Russian exports of gas amount to 238.1Bil m³, of which 197.7Bil m³ were exported via Pipeline, with a further 40.4Bil m³ being LNG. This amounts to a total of 238.1Bil m³ of exports in 2020, which is a 25.3% share of total global exports in that year.

Figures have been taken from the BP Statistical review for 2020, and there's loads more of them in that, if this wasn't enough.

When it comes to green energy, the EU in total produced 22.1% of it's gross energy consumption from renewable energy sources. The two European countries producing most of their energy from renewable energy sources were Iceland and Norway, sitting at 83.7 and 77.4% respectively, both non-EU countries admittedly, however they are closely cooperating with the European Green Deal. Germany produced 19.3% of its energy via renewables, barely scratching their set target for 2020, it however managed to expand to 19.7% in 2021, while Denmark produces 31.6% of its energy via renewables and Austria 36.5%. According to Eurostat's Renewable Energy statistics.
1648881438786.png

In terms of pure electricity consumption, the EU produces 37.5% of it's electricity from renewable energy sources. Germany produces around 45% that way, Denmark around 65% and Austria sits in the top spot of EU producers with around 78.2%, however lower than both Iceland and Norway. Source

Renewable Energy production in Europe is dominated by three major methods: Wind Energy, Hydropower and Solar Energy, with Wind producing approximately 36% of all renewable energy, hydropower 33% and Solar energy 14%. Source
1648881876935.png


In Germany, some 34.9% of electricity consumption was achieved via renewable energy generation, coming in at first place, before the generation via lignite at 22.5%, coal and natural gas at 12.9% each and Nuclear Energy at 11.8%. Renewable energy in Germany is divided by 17.3% wind power, 7.2% solar energy, 7.0% biomass and only 2.6% hydropower. Figures for March 2019.
In 2020, land-based wind power was able to generate 103.7 TWh of electricity for an installed capacity of 54.4 gigawatts, and sea-based wind power was able to generate 27.3TWh for an installed capacity of 7.75 gigawatts.
At the end of 2019, more than 1.6 Million solar panels had been installed in Germany, and had a production capacity of 47.5 gigawatts. Source (in german)
1648882735264.png


"Gross available energy in the European Union in 2020 decreased compared with 2019 (-8.1 %). Oil (crude oil and petroleum products) continued to be the most significant energy source for the European economy, despite a long-term downward trend, while natural gas remained the second largest energy source. Both oil and natural gas were on the decline in 2020, decreasing by 12.6 % and 2.4 %, respectively. The contribution of renewable energy sources continued to grow. Renewables already surpassed solid fossil fuels in 2018 and 2019, and gained further ground in 2020. Solid fossil fuels decreased by 18.4 % in 2020, sinking to the lowest value since 1990."

"Over the past decade (2010-2020), the trend in primary energy production was generally negative for solid fossil fuels, oil, natural gas, and nuclear energy. The production of natural gas saw the sharpest decline (-62.4 %), followed by solid fossil fuels and oil and petroleum products (with a drop of 43.0 % and 35.1 %, respectively). The production of renewable energies followed a clear positive trend over the same period (except in 2011), with a 39.2 % increase, similarly to waste (non-renewable), which saw a 30.2 % increase." -Eurostat energy statistics

1648881284603.png

The total installed capacity for renewable energy in the EU sits at 609.1 Gigawatts in 2020, and is expected to continue growing exponentially. Total energy generation for 2019 was 2778 TWh. Renewable energy source Total energy generation source

A per capita consumption map of Europe, from this source, which I recommend reading for anyone interested.

1648883087906.png


While Germany wants to shut down its last nuclear plants, there is still a chance that those would continue operation, depending on how the energy supply from Russia develops. While the political leadership is steadfast in its goal to phase out nuclear power generation by the end of 2022 , leading figures of industry are still hoping for a continuation, as long as the energy supply isn't guaranteed. These four articles here ( 1, 2, 3, 4) all came out in the last 24 hours, and all concern nuclear energy, it's a topic of debate in the german media.
 

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Blackbeardsgoldfish

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Germans face drastic price rises if EU bars Russian gas, E.ON Germany chief says -RND​

Reuters


BERLIN, April 5 (Reuters) - German consumers must prepare for drastic electricity and gas price increases if the European Union cuts off Russian gas, E.ON (EONGn.DE) Germany's chief executive said on Tuesday, adding prices were already rising rapidly even without such a move.

Speaking to German news organisation RND, Filip Thon warned that the energy firm was already seeing wholesale retail prices 20 times higher and electricity prices eight times higher this spring than a year ago.

How much further prices would rise in the event of a ban on gas from Russia depended on the extent to which Germany increases its reserves, currently at around 25 to 27 percent of capacity, ahead of the next cold season, Thon said.

"The situation is very tense, even without a stop in deliveries," Thon told RND, adding that the end of Russian gas imports would have "drastic consequences for the German economy."

The CEO called for the state to provide more financial support to private households to soften the blow, such as by lowering taxes on energy bills.

After years of prospering from Russian energy imports, Germany is convulsed by a debate over how to unwind a business relationship that critics say is financing Russia's invasion of Ukraine. Russia supplies 40% of Europe's gas needs.

German Finance Minister Christian Lindner on Monday rejected an EU embargo on Russian gas imports as mounting civilian deaths in Ukraine increase pressure on the bloc to impose sanctions on Russia's energy sector.

https://www.reuters.com/world/europ...ussian-gas-eon-germany-chief-says-2022-04-04/
 

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they already did drastically increase the gas and fuel prices also electric....... while in the reality they increased to buy more from russia.. thats a well known fact..

the drastic increase in fuel is due to taxes and inflation.. they hide it with the boogyman russia..

europe bought since the ukrainian crisis 70% more russian gas..

they are just milking us..
 

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Germany should explore domestic oil and gas reserves to ‘stand on its own feet’: minister​

in Oil & Companies News 09/04/2022

Germany should explore its domestic oil and gas reserves in the North Sea, Finance Minister Christian Lindner was quoted as saying on Wednesday, as Europe’s biggest economy looks for alternatives to cut its dependence on Russian fossil fuels.

After years of prospering from Russian energy imports, Germany is convulsed by a debate over how to unwind a business relationship that critics say is financing Russia’s invasion of Ukraine. Russia supplies 40% of Europe’s gas needs.

“I think the coalition agreement stipulating that we no longer want to produce oil and gas in the North Sea and do not want to explore new fields is out of time,” Lindner was quoted as saying by the ntv broadcaster, citing The European magazine.

Lindner said Germany had unused reserves of raw materials and must “stand on its own feet” in terms of energy policy.

The government will systematically expand renewable energy to fill the supply gap but other alternatives must be considered, he said, adding that domestic oil and gas exploration had a different economic perspective than previously assumed due to the increase in energy prices.

“We have to look at what is actually going on in the North Sea,” Lindner said, adding that Germany must talk with its European partners, especially the Netherlands, on the matter.

Around one billion cubic meters of gas could be produced annually from the natural gas field in the German-Dutch border area in the North Sea near the island of Borkum, ntv said, citing estimates by the Federal Association of Natural Gas, Oil and Geoenergy.

Earlier on Wednesday, Germany’s economy and climate ministry presented a package of measures to speed up the expansion of renewable energy, as the need to reduce the country’s heavy reliance on Russian fossil fuels adds urgency to its green transition plans.
Source: Reuters (Reporting by Riham Alkousaa; editing by Richard Pullin)


https://www.hellenicshippingnews.co...s-reserves-to-stand-on-its-own-feet-minister/
 

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German energy regulator to sustain Gazprom Germania operations​

By Tom Käckenhoff
and Vera Eckert

Astora natural gas depot in Rehden

The Astora natural gas depot, which is the largest natural gas storage in Western Europe, is pictured in Rehden, Germany, March 16, 2022. Astora is part of the Gazprom Germania Group. REUTERS/Fabian Bimmer

  • Regulator urges market to cooperate with new status
  • Authority stepped in to avoid insolvency, foreign owners
  • Company seen crucial to wider European supply security
  • Egbert Laege appointed to support management
FRANKFURT, April 8 (Reuters) - Germany's energy network regulator on Friday said it would ensure ongoing operations at Gazprom Germania, a trading, storage and transmission business abandoned by Russia's Gazprom (GAZP.MM), and called on market operators not to cut ties.

With assets and subsidiaries in Germany, Britain, Switzerland, Belgium, the Czech Republic and outside Europe, the firm's activities are essential for the European gas market and its supply to industry and households.

Russia's Gazprom said a week ago it was quitting its business in Germany, at a moment of crisis in energy ties between the two countries following Russia's invasion of Ukraine. It gave no explanation. read more

"The Bundesnetzagentur will ensure that all payments of Gazprom Germania GmbH may only be made to maintain business operations and will thus prevent an uncontrolled outflow of funds," the German regulator said in a letter to operators connected with Gazprom Germania and seen by Reuters.

Spokespeople for the authority confirmed the letter had been posted.

"It will also ensure that the company can, and will, meet its payment obligations to continue its business operations," it added.

Gazprom Germania GmbH was taken into the regulator's control on April 4 as the Economy Ministry sought to stave off a possible acquisition by JSC Palmary and Gazprom Export Business Services LLC, both of Russia, the Economy Ministry said at the time. read more

Acquisitions of critical infrastructure by operators from outside the EU are prohibited under German foreign trade law, unless reviews allow it.

Its operations, based on Russia's gas production, span supplies to wholesalers and retailers, storage and pipeline transmission, covering the entire gas value chain.

Its operations include Germany's biggest gas storage facility at Rehden in Lower Saxony, with 4 billion cubic metres of capacity.

The regulator, in its letter addressed to banks, business partners, services providers and customers, said the company needed to procure gas and have the means to pay for it, avoiding insolvency.

"The consequences (of an insolvency) for the energy supply system, not only in Germany but in Europe as well, would be severe," it said.

Trading firms could collapse, transport would be disrupted, and underground storage caverns would remain unfilled, it said.

The April 4 move by the authority means it can remove executives, hire staff and direct management, as well as guarding against an outflow of finances.

Tobias Federico, analyst at Berlin-based Energy Brainpool which advises the government and utilities, said the market needed a perspective beyond Sept. 30, 2022, when the regulator's current mandate ends, as the winter season begins when gas is being taken out of storage.

"Can the supervision by the Network Agency be extended, will there be forced expropriation, or nationalization?" he said.

"Without a perspective of who will become the owner, the market will be hesitant when it comes to feed-in (into storage)."

Wingas, a Gazprom Germania subsidiary and one of Germany's biggest gas traders, said in response to an enquiry after the April 4 move by the regulator that it would be operating under the changed parameters.

"Our primary goal remains to ensure the supply of our customers and the fulfilment of our contractual delivery obligations," it said.

The Bundesnetzagentur said in a press release that it had appointed Egbert Laege, a former board member of energy bourse EEX, as general representative to support the company's management.

Reporting by Vera Eckert and Tom Kaeckenhoff; Editing by Maria Sheahan, Jason Neely, Jan Harvey and Nick Macfie

https://www.reuters.com/business/en...stain-gazprom-germania-operations-2022-04-08/
 
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Germany should explore domestic oil and gas reserves to ‘stand on its own feet’: minister​

in Oil & Companies News 09/04/2022

Germany should explore its domestic oil and gas reserves in the North Sea, Finance Minister Christian Lindner was quoted as saying on Wednesday, as Europe’s biggest economy looks for alternatives to cut its dependence on Russian fossil fuels.

After years of prospering from Russian energy imports, Germany is convulsed by a debate over how to unwind a business relationship that critics say is financing Russia’s invasion of Ukraine. Russia supplies 40% of Europe’s gas needs.

“I think the coalition agreement stipulating that we no longer want to produce oil and gas in the North Sea and do not want to explore new fields is out of time,” Lindner was quoted as saying by the ntv broadcaster, citing The European magazine.

Lindner said Germany had unused reserves of raw materials and must “stand on its own feet” in terms of energy policy.

The government will systematically expand renewable energy to fill the supply gap but other alternatives must be considered, he said, adding that domestic oil and gas exploration had a different economic perspective than previously assumed due to the increase in energy prices.

“We have to look at what is actually going on in the North Sea,” Lindner said, adding that Germany must talk with its European partners, especially the Netherlands, on the matter.

Around one billion cubic meters of gas could be produced annually from the natural gas field in the German-Dutch border area in the North Sea near the island of Borkum, ntv said, citing estimates by the Federal Association of Natural Gas, Oil and Geoenergy.

Earlier on Wednesday, Germany’s economy and climate ministry presented a package of measures to speed up the expansion of renewable energy, as the need to reduce the country’s heavy reliance on Russian fossil fuels adds urgency to its green transition plans.
Source: Reuters (Reporting by Riham Alkousaa; editing by Richard Pullin)


https://www.hellenicshippingnews.co...s-reserves-to-stand-on-its-own-feet-minister/


would also mean much more fracking in our area.. we already have the highest cancer rate in germany THANK YOU 🥰
 

Blackbeardsgoldfish

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would also mean much more fracking in our area.. we already have the highest cancer rate in germany THANK YOU 🥰
Can't make an omelet without breaking a few eggs...
But this isn't yet a reality and only in the planning stages, and we know how breathtakingly competent the bureaucracy is anyway
 

Blackbeardsgoldfish

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Isn't there any alternative? Gas from Qatar maybe ?
With the current LNG infrastructure in place, it's not an option. The german government has been pumping resources into building new LNG terminals in North Sea ports and aims to open them as soon as possible in the next few years. But for the meantime foreign ports in Europe are virtually the only option.
Pipeline imports from Russia are enormous and not easily replaceable for a country that's been neglecting LNG for years.
Germany currently imports approximately the same value of oil and gas from Russia. Import of oil can be easily replaced from that of other countries, and the impact to the German economy from completely eliminating Russian oil would be negligible. Gas is more difficult.

Overall cutting both oil and gas immediately would most likely result in a GDP loss of about 0.2-1.3% (with the lower end more likely). In the most extreme of scenarios, at the very most, it would result in a GDP loss of 2.2%. You can read the study here: https://www.econtribute.de/RePEc/ajk/ajkpbs/ECONtribute_PB_028_2022.pdf

It's also worth noting that even if Germany supplies Ukraine with heavy weapons, Russia is highly unlikely to cut energy exports. Russia is far too dependent on German energy money.
If you and other folks want to, we can continue the topic here... But I need to preemptively say that I'm learning by doing here, and only been invested in this topic basically for 1-2 months now and my opinion isn't valid on anything.

Hypothetically speaking, if Germany would actually send heavy weaponry to Ukraine and Russia cut the gas in return, what market does that leave for Russia, other than China? Germany is by far the biggest euro customer of their gas and as you said a vital source of money, and it seems pretty ludicrous to think that Russia would make its energy income dependent on China, especially now that their war performance has been laid bare. As far as I know, chinese support has been barely enough to deny accusations of not supporting their alliance, and there's been many considerations about the future relations with Russia.

So, from this perspective, nothing really stands in the way of Germany supplying arms.
 

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With the current LNG infrastructure in place, it's not an option. The german government has been pumping resources into building new LNG terminals in North Sea ports and aims to open them as soon as possible in the next few years. But for the meantime foreign ports in Europe are virtually the only option.
Pipeline imports from Russia are enormous and not easily replaceable for a country that's been neglecting LNG for years.

If you and other folks want to, we can continue the topic here... But I need to preemptively say that I'm learning by doing here, and only been invested in this topic basically for 1-2 months now and my opinion isn't valid on anything.

Hypothetically speaking, if Germany would actually send heavy weaponry to Ukraine and Russia cut the gas in return, what market does that leave for Russia, other than China? Germany is by far the biggest euro customer of their gas and as you said a vital source of money, and it seems pretty ludicrous to think that Russia would make its energy income dependent on China, especially now that their war performance has been laid bare. As far as I know, chinese support has been barely enough to deny accusations of not supporting their alliance, and there's been many considerations about the future relations with Russia.

So, from this perspective, nothing really stands in the way of Germany supplying arms.
Gas is typically transported via pipelines, which have limited capacity, hence the need for projects like Nordstream 2. Most of Russia's gas pipelines go to Europe, and it does not have the capacity to transport gas in anywhere near the desired quantities to China and elsewhere. You can convert natural to liquefied natural gas, which is then easier to transport by ship, but Russia doesn't have the infrastructure for that either. Additionally countries on the receiving end need to have LNG terminals in sufficient quantity.

Russia is currently building a new gas pipeline to China and another one to Pakistan. But these are very expensive projects, and the one to China is scheduled to begin operation in 2-3 years. Furthermore Russia needs Western tech to build and mantain a lot of its gas and oil infrastructure, which will be harder to obtain under sanctions.

Basically Russia would continue to send gas to Germany no matter what, Scholz's reasoning for not sending heavy weapons to Ukraine lie elsewhere.
 
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Austria
Gas is typically transported via pipelines, which have limited capacity, hence the need for projects like Nordstream 2. Most of Russia's gas pipelines go to Europe, and it does not have the capacity to transport gas in anywhere near the desired quantities to China and elsewhere. You can convert natural to liquefied natural gas, which is then easier to transport by ship, but Russia doesn't have the infrastructure for that either. Additionally countries on the receiving end need to have LNG terminals in sufficient quantity.
Been reading up on the gas industry for a bit now, the entire hydrocarbon industry really. Matter of fact remains that LNG is still more expensive and less secure than pipeline, and German supply is dominated by pipeline... and in the case of gas from the western siberian basin the extraction is immensely good quality gas, up to 99% CH4 iirc.
For long I thought that Merkel's biggest failure was her inability to control the rise of far-right parties in germany and europe, but by now I'm honestly starting to think that the continued support of Russia and Putin after 2014 was at least as big.
Russia is currently building a new gas pipeline to China and another one to Pakistan. But these are very expensive projects, and the one to China is scheduled to begin operation in 2-3 years. Furthermore Russia needs Western tech to build and mantain a lot of its gas and oil infrastructure, which will be harder to obtain under sanctions.
Will they be able to obtain it at all?
Basically Russia would continue to send gas to Germany no matter what, Scholz's reasoning for not sending heavy weapons to Ukraine lie elsewhere.
He has a real chance to get Putin out of power, but doesn't use it. He could gain so much, and hell he would even be supported on the domestic base if Putin were to fall. A lot of the germans would take higher gas prices, if not gas rationing, in exchange for toppling him.
Or maybe I'm too naive here, and the spoiled german consumer would be too self-centered to see the bigger benefit of it all. I probably am
 
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