Korea Ballistic Missiles programs

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South Korea’s Defense Project Promotion Committee has decided that series-production of the locally developed Korean Tactical Surface to Surface Missile (KTSSM) system will begin in 2020.

A statement issued on 25 November by the country’s Defense Acquisition Program Administration (DAPA) said the committee, which is headed by the Minister of National Defense Suh Wook, approved plans to acquire at least 200 missiles, which have an estimated range of about 120 km, under a project budgeted at KRW320 billion (USD289 million) that is expected to be completed by 2025.

On 25 November South Korea’s Defense Project Promotion Committee approved plans to begin series-production of the locally developed KTSSM tactical ballistic missile system. (ADD)

On 25 November South Korea’s Defense Project Promotion Committee approved plans to begin series-production of the locally developed KTSSM tactical ballistic missile system. (ADD)

The project is aimed at providing the South Korean military with the capability to destroy long-range artillery pieces hidden in underground tunnels and “to neutralise an enemy attack [in]the shortest time possible, the Yonhap News Agency quoted DAPA officials as saying, adding that this new tactical ballistic missile system, which was developed by the country’s Agency for Defense Development (ADD) and defence company Hanwha, is expected to enter service from 2022.

Also known as the ‘artillery killer’ the KTSSM system has been designed to carry out precision-strikes. Four missiles can be launched almost simultaneously from a static launching platform.

The projectiles used by the system are similar in appearance and dimension to some of those used by the US Army Tactical Missile System (ATACMS). Each missile features a payload section believed to carry a small diameter penetrator warhead filled with a high‐blast, or thermobaric explosive, intended to attack protected, underground artillery emplacements.

 

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The South Korean military has completed ground-based tests of a domestically developed submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM) and plans to conduct underwater tests this year.

A military source said Wednesday that ground-based tests were completed last year for the missile, which would be carried on South Korean submarines of three-thousand tons or more.

However, the source said neither the dates nor the means of the underwater tests has been decided.

The South Korean military has been developing a SLBM based on the Hyunmoo-2B ballistic missile, which has a range of 500 kilometers.

The South Korean navy has already deployed the Dosan Ahn Changho-class submarine, a three-thousand-ton boat with six vertical launch tubes, and plans to build several classes of even larger submarines.

The navy is even considering developing a nuclear-powered submarine of over four-thousand tons.

North Korea, meanwhile, is reportedly building a new submarine that can launch SLBMs.

 

Test7

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South Korea tested for the first time a submarine launched ballistic missile (SLBM) from a submerged barge last week.​


According to local media Yonhap TV News, the test was a success. This paves the way to the Republic of Korea (ROK) entering the “elite club” of countries able to design and field its own SLBMs. North Korea is arguably the 7th country in the world to have acquired this technology. All countries that have designed SLBMs so far are nuclear states. South Korea is notably the only country that will possess SLBMs without strategic nuclear weapons.


Details about the test are not fully open to the public, but it was reportedly conducted with a variant of Hyunmoo 2B missiles that can be fired within the range of 500 km. The ROK Navy expects to enhance strategic functions against North Korea by taking advantage of K-SLBMs (locally known as Hyunmoo 4-4) after the Moon-Biden press conference confirmed that both countries agreed to lift the ROK-U.S. Missile Guidelines on May 2021.


Hyunmoo-2B-ballistic-missile.jpg


Hyunmoo 2B ballistic missile

Another Korean media suggested that the actual cold launch test from the 3,000 tons Dosan Ahn Chang Ho-class (KSS III Batch 1) submarine is imminent, as the first submarine, capable of carrying K-VLS (Vertical Launching System) launchers for SLBMs, is known to be delivered to the Republic of Korean Navy within this month. The media quoted an informed source of the Korean military who said:

“The submarine Dosan Ahn Chang Ho only has torpedo decoy and SLBM launchers to test still, whereas tests of main equipment functions and sea trials have been completed. I heard that the submarine could be delivered to the Navy this month only after finishing the launching system test.”

Since the ROK Navy reportedly conducted its SLBM test-firing from a submerged barge this time and successfully completed a land-based launch test in the end of last year, the local press has speculated that the actual launch from the first 3,000 tons submarine (from a dived position) could be executed sooner or later, as Yonhap News Agency reported. In regard to this, an informed source from the military showed reservations and assumed a wait-and-see attitude to the media:

“I assume that the Navy is still not in the phase of being able to launch SLBMs from a dived submarine. As far as I know, however, technical development to acquire necessary capabilities is ongoing.”

The ROK Ministry of National Defense (MND) denied to provide details or confirm whether recent reports are true. The MND answered instead, “Selective confirmation on military assets is limited for security reasons. The Korean Armed Forces has been acquiring up-to-date and powerful assets to guarantee the peace of the Korean Peninsula based on strong military power, and will continuously develop.” Meanwhile, the Defense Acquisition Program Administration (DAPA) only confirmed, “[the submarine] will be delivered very soon by completing a trial test for the torpedo decoy launching system.”


The first ship of the Dosan Ahn Chang Ho-class is fitted with 6 cold launch VLS (vertical launch systems) reportedly capable of launching both the Hyunmoo 4-4 SLBM and a submarine launched land attack cruise missile (SLCM) known as Hyunmoo 3C with a range of 1,500 Km. The follow-on class, known as KSS III Batch 2, will be fitted with up to 10 of those VLS, as Naval News reported previously. However, the MND still has not officially confirmed exact information about the development, size, and length of SLBMs, even whether the 3,000 tons submarines would be loaded with ballistic missiles.

 

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South Korea’s apparent recent advances in developing a conventionally armed SLBM could result in the introduction of a unique conventional submarine-based capability. This, however, could be destabilising in a crisis, explain Timothy Wright and Joseph Dempsey, as post-launch ambiguity over the launch nation and the nature of the warhead could lead to inadvertent escalation.

South Korea stands to potentially be the first country to field a conventionally armed submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM), should Seoul continue its apparent recent development trajectory. But the deployment of a conventionally armed SLBM raises some uncomfortable questions concerning crisis stability in Northeast Asia, not least that of payload ambiguity.

Unconfirmed testing​

While recent reports of an SLBM-related test at sea by Seoul remain unconfirmed, they are also consistent with claims of ground tests to support such a programme being carried out in 2020. The latest alleged test probably involved a submerged test rig, not a submarine. The trial may have been ejection only, or, less likely, ejection, rocket-motor ignition and flight. The latter, however, would have been more prone to detection. Irrespective of the repeated reports, the South Korean government has yet to publicly confirm or deny its SLBM ambitions.

South Korea’s initial sea-based land-attack missile capability is vested in the surface-based Hae Sung II and sub-surface-launched Hae Sung III cruise missiles. Seoul’s Chang Bogo III (KSS-III) class of submarines has a six-cell vertical launch system (VLS). The first of three Chang Bogo III Batch I vessels, the ROKS Dosan Ahn Changho, is expected to be commissioned later this year. The follow-on Batch II submarines will be around ten metres larger, reportedly with a VLS capable of accommodating ballistic missiles.

Placing a precision land-attack capability on submarines provides a more survivable basing option for defence planners, in that it is less vulnerable to North Korea, since Pyongyang has very limited anti-submarine warfare capabilities. It also provides additional assurances that Seoul would retain a second-strike conventional capability, a key part of South Korea’s deterrence-by-punishment doctrine known as ‘Overwhelming Response’ – formerly known as ‘Korea Massive Punishment and Retaliation (KMPR)’ – to deter North Korea from using nuclear weapons.

Conventional motivations​

Although details of the programme remain unclear, Seoul’s motivation to develop a conventionally armed SLBM may be discernible. Another part of Seoul’s strategy to deter North Korea is its ‘Strategic Target Strike’ doctrine, a deterrence-by-denial approach formerly known as ‘Kill Chain’. Its goal is to be able to detect North Korean missile-launch preparations and to engage the missiles prior to firing, a cycle that reportedly takes less than 25 minutes. Along with ‘Overwhelming Response’, ‘Strategic Target Strike’ forms part of South Korea’s ‘4D Operational Concept’, Seoul’s multifaceted deterrence-by-denial-and-punishment strategy.

Pyongyang’s successful pursuit of solid propellants to partly replace liquid fuels for some of its ballistic missiles – especially short-range systems such as the KN-23 and KN-24 – has, however, meant less time is required for missile-launch preparations, and less time for Seoul to react. If an element of South Korea’s precision-attack capability is its land-attack cruise missiles, it should be noted that their flight speeds are far lower than those of ballistic missiles.

Given the importance for South Korean forces of targeting North Korean mobile missile launchers before missiles are launched, speed as well as accuracy is likely to be of growing importance for Seoul’s pre-emption doctrine. South Korea already operates several types of land-based short-range ballistic missiles (SRBMs), such as the Hyunmoo series, and it could develop a medium-range system following the scrapping earlier in 2021 of South Korea’s ballistic-missile range restrictions – first agreed by the US and South Korea in 1979 – by both Seoul and Washington.

Developing an SLBM, however, would increase Seoul’s precision-strike capabilities and widen its attack options. The SLBM option would be particularly useful in areas beyond the range of current South Korean ground-based SRBMs, which had been limited to an 800-kilometre range until the lifting of the United States–South Korea ballistic-missile guidelines.

A misguided capability?​

From Seoul’s perspective, developing a conventionally armed SLBM may provide a valuable additional means of deterring Pyongyang from launching nuclear or missile attacks against South Korea. Were deterrence to fail, an SLBM would provide a means of rapidly engaging targets that could otherwise be deployed outside the range of Seoul’s SRBMs. However, the use of a conventionally armed SLBM in a crisis or limited conflict might have stability implications in Northeast Asia due to the potential for post-launch ambiguity and inadvertent escalation.

While South Korea would be unique in operating a conventionally armed SLBM, there is a risk that North Korea, and possibly other regional states, might be uncertain as to whether any incoming missile was armed with a conventional or nuclear warhead because of the challenge of attributing the launch. And, were the launch detected, any decision on the nature of a response might need to be taken within the short flight time of the missile.

While South Korea has operated a submarine-launched land-attack capability based on cruise missiles for some time, its apparent recent advances in developing a conventionally armed SLBM could result in the introduction of a unique conventional submarine-based capability.

This would provide Seoul with greater capabilities and targeting options as part of its deterrence architecture against Pyongyang, but could also be destabilising in a crisis. Crisis-stability concerns, especially the potential for a conventionally armed SLBM being misidentified, have been among the factors impeding the development of such systems by long-time SLBM operators such as Russia and the US, as any ambiguity over the launch nation and the nature of the warhead risks an unintended escalatory response.

 

Baljak

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The purpose of South Korea's development of SLBM is one of the testing processes to develop nuclear submarines, not conventional submarines. The reason why South Korea is developing submarine missiles such as SLBM recently is related to the current South Korean government's plan to develop nuclear submarines. South Korea's major military targets have focused on North Korea's nuclear threats over the past two decades, but they are now targeting China and Japan. For this reason, the Korean government now needs nuclear submarines rather than inefficient conventional submarines. In the end, South Korea's ultimate goal is to develop nuclear submarines and develop intercontinental ballistic missiles to secure sufficient military deterrence against military threats from China, Japan and North Korea.
 

Hexciter

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The purpose of South Korea's development of SLBM is one of the testing processes to develop nuclear submarines, not conventional submarines. The reason why South Korea is developing submarine missiles such as SLBM recently is related to the current South Korean government's plan to develop nuclear submarines. South Korea's major military targets have focused on North Korea's nuclear threats over the past two decades, but they are now targeting China and Japan. For this reason, the Korean government now needs nuclear submarines rather than inefficient conventional submarines. In the end, South Korea's ultimate goal is to develop nuclear submarines and develop intercontinental ballistic missiles to secure sufficient military deterrence against military threats from China, Japan and North Korea.
ICBM for nearby countries? 🤣 They mean they’ll fire from Middle of Pacific Ocean where ☢️ submarines at safety.
 

Baljak

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ICBM for nearby countries? 🤣 They mean they’ll fire from Middle of Pacific Ocean where ☢️ submarines at safety.
Compared to nuclear submarines, conventional submarines with internal combustion engines have many strategic weaknesses. There is no such thing as a safe range for submarines. The safe distance of a submarine is only when it stays in the deep sea. Modern military radar technology is very easy to detect and track when a submarine comes out of the water or shoots a missile. Unlike nuclear submarines, conventional submarines must regularly rise to the surface. And The powered engines of conventional submarines cannot travel as fast as nuclear submarines. If three issues are resolved, the performance of conventional submarines, the ability to arm weapons, and the cost of maintenance, there will be no reason for the United States and Russia to operate nuclear submarines. The short range of missiles currently held by Korea is not enough to keep China in check. That's why South Korea needs IRBM with a range of at least 3,000km in order to keep all of China within missile range. Of course, if Korea has an ICBM with a range of 5,500km, it cannot use nuclear warheads, but this is a sufficient means of attack for neighboring countries.
 
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ICBM for nearby countries? 🤣 They mean they’ll fire from Middle of Pacific Ocean where ☢️ submarines at safety.

SLBM with ICBM range basically would be end goal.

Gives many more options for deterrence patrol profiles.
 

Baljak

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SLBM with ICBM range basically would be end goal.

Gives many more options for deterrence patrol profiles.
Those without military knowledge are not aware that ICBM and SLBM are missile systems that share the same technology. if apply the technology of ICBM to a submarine, it becomes SLBM. The ICBM and SLBM are technically exactly the same. ICBM greatest weakness is that missiles are fired from fixed missile silos. This means that if the missile silo is destroyed, there is no means of responding. SLBM, on the other hand, has similar accuracy to ICBM, has the same range as ICBM, And is a more covert means of attacking targets than ICBM. For this reason, the UK, which is currently a representative maritime country, has scrapped ICBM and operates only SLBM separately.
 
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Will they be allowed nukes?

Conventional SLBMs seem a bit lackluster

I think conventional is just a blueprint for the future that will give South Korea the capabilities to build nuclear.

South Korea needs a strong deterrance in their neighbourhood. North Korea is not just the threat but China and Japan, SK and Japan have been butting heads lately eventhough they both have the same threats but have been having issues from historical grievances to territorial disputes.

Lesser extent of threat is Russia. SK lives in a unpredictable neighbourhood.

I gotta say both Turkey and SK are similar here both live in shit neighbourhoods. But the middle east is even worse to have neighbours.
 

Baljak

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I think conventional is just a blueprint for the future that will give South Korea the capabilities to build nuclear.

South Korea needs a strong deterrance in their neighbourhood. North Korea is not just the threat but China and Japan, SK and Japan have been butting heads lately eventhough they both have the same threats but have been having issues from historical grievances to territorial disputes.

Lesser extent of threat is Russia. SK lives in a unpredictable neighbourhood.

I gotta say both Turkey and SK are similar here both live in shit neighbourhoods. But the middle east is even worse to have neighbours.
I strongly agree with your opinion. Indeed, Turkey and South Korea are geographically at a disadvantage to deal with military threats. However, the difference between Korea and Turkey is that Korea is relatively safer from military threats than Turkey and is fully manageable. However, Turkey has too many military conflicts with countries such as PPK and Greece, Armenia, Syria, Iran and Russia. Turkey's surrounding by neighboring countries has been the main reason for Turkey's need to build up its military power. Anyway, Turkey and South Korea need to increase their military power because of their cursed geographical location and problematic neighboring countries.
 

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By Oh Seok-min

SEOUL, Sept. 7 (Yonhap) -- South Korea has successfully test-fired a homegrown submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM) from a new submarine to become the world's eighth country to possess the weapon, sources said Tuesday.

The Agency for Defense Development (ADD) carried out underwater ejection tests of the SLBM from the Dosan Ahn Chang-ho submarine last week after successful launches from an underwater barge last month, according to the military sources. The locally developed 3,000-ton class submarine is equipped with six vertical launch tubes.
After a round of additional tests, the SLBM will be mass produced for deployment, the sources said.

The SLBM is believed to be a variant of the country's Hyunmoo-2B ballistic missile, with a flight range of around 500 kilometers, and will be fitted with conventional warheads, according to the sources. The missile has reportedly been codenamed, Hyunmoo 4-4.

South Korea became the eighth country in the world to develop an SLBM after the United States, Russia, Britain, France, India, China and North Korea. Unlike conventional land-based missiles, SLBMs are harder to detect as they are launched from submarines for surprise strikes, which is why they are often called "a game changer." The new missile is expected to serve as a key deterrence tool for South Korea, which faces consistent threats by North Korea.

The communist country has showcased several new types of SLBMs recently and is working to build a new submarine believed to be a 3,000-ton one capable of carrying SLBMs. The defense ministry in Seoul refused to officially confirm the development.

"Our military secures advanced high-powered military assets to ensure peace on the Korean Peninsula by building strong military capabilities, and plans to continue to develop them," the ministry said in a release.

 
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New Dawn: First Time A Modern Non-Nuclear Submarine Has Fired A Ballistic Missile​


South Korea has test fired a ballistic missile from its new KSS-III class AIP (Air Independent Power) equipped submarine. As many observers note the significance of this from a geo-political standpoint, it is also important from a submarine technology angle. The combination of AIP and conventionally-armed ballistic missiles opens new opportunities for navies. South Korea is the first, but it may not be the last.


The missile was tested aboard the lead KSS-III submarine, Dosan Ahn Changho (도산안창호) earlier this month, and announced today. This follows recent tests from submerged platforms. The Hyunmoo 4-4 missile (현무-4-4) is the submarine launched derivative of the country’s indigenous Hyunmoo 2B (현무-2B) balletic missile. It is seen as a direct counter to neighboring North Korea’s submarine launched ballistic missile program. That focuses on the much larger Pukguksong (Pole Star, aka Polaris) family of missiles. These have a range in excess of 1,000 km (620 miles) and could be equipped ,with the north’s nuclear missiles.


Very Different From North Korean Submarines​

One contrast between the South Korean and North Korean SLBM programs is the submarines. The KSS-III are brand new and represent leading edge submarine technology. They are locally developed by South Korean shipbuilder Daewoo Shipbuilding & Marine Engineering Co., Ltd (DSME). The company has extensive experience of building German Type-209 and Type-214 boats. For the KSS-III project they also partnered with companies in the UK, France, Spain and elsewhere for key systems.


By contrast the North Korean ballistic missile submarines are antiquated. The first test boat, the Gorae Class (고래급), was locally built but only carried a single missile tube. The in-service boats however are actually remodeled ROMEO Class submarines. These represent 1950s technology and are both smaller and noisier than the KSS-III class. And it seems that adding the ballistic missiles sacrificed half their banks of batteries so submerged endurance will be even more limited.


The KSS-II, with it’s air-independent power (AIP) can operate submerged for extended periods however. The fuel cell AIP is essentially the same as on the Type-214. And it is expected to be combined with Korean developed lithium-ion battery technology in future boats. Local firm Hanwha Defense has been developing the cutting edge submarine battery technologies for several years. Safety is paramount and there are many challenges to overcome, but the performance incentive is clear. The batteries are expected to be fielded aboard the KSS-III class by 2027.


Overall the KSS-III class submarine is at the larger end of non-nuclear boats. It’s submerged displacement is 3,705 tons and it has three deck levels. The defining characteristic however is the vertical launch system. 6 tubes are positioned between the AIP and the traditional propulsion machinery. This is currently unique among submarines of this size, with the North Korean boats accepted.


Additionally the VLS is compatible with the locally developed land attack cruise missile (LACM). The Hyunmoo-3 cruise missile is roughly equivalent to the US Navy’s Tomahawk but is supersonic.


Impact On Submarine Warfare​

If the South Korean project to launch ballistic missiles from relatively small AIP equipped submarines is deemed successful other navies may follow suit. There are rumors that Israel may be looking to VLS aboard its latest German-built submarines. And India is thought to be looking to a VLS on its planned P75I submarines. DSME are in the running with a version of the KSS-III known as the DSME3000. This could carry the Brahmos anti-ship missile but also, potentially, small ballistic missiles.


China has, technically, also tested SLBMs from a submarine with AIP. The single Type-032 Qing class boat is used to test new missiles. Yet that is a specific test submarine and the AIP and SLBM are just cohabiting a hull, rather than being an operational proposition.


The test launch really puts the KSS-III on the submarine map. In these respects it is the most potent conventionally powered and armed submarine in the world. And at the same time it does not appear to have scarified the basic capabilities of the latest generation of AIP submarines. Navies and shipbuilders will be taking note.
 

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South Korea's homegrown submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM) is test-fired from the Navy's 3,000-ton-class Dosan Ahn Chang-ho submarine at the ADD Anheung Test Center in South Chungcheong Province on Sept. 15, 2021, in this file photo provided by the Ministry of National Defense.

SEOUL, April 21 (Yonhap) -- South Korea successfully test-fired two submarine-launched ballistic missiles (SLBMs) consecutively earlier this week, government sources said Thursday, in a sign the missile is nearing its operational deployment.

The military launched the SLBMs at an interval of 20 seconds from the 3,000-ton Dosan Ahn Chang-ho submarine in the Yellow Sea on Monday, the sources said. They flew some 400 kilometers and hit the preset maritime targets.

The test came after the country successfully carried out an SLBM test-launch from the submarine in September last year, becoming the world's seventh country with homegrown SLBMs.

Suh Hoon, the director of the presidential National Security Office, is said to have observed Monday's test-firing.

The latest launch highlights progress being made in South Korea's efforts to deploy the new weapons system capable of launching surprise strikes at hostile targets.

The Navy has been working on deploying the first batch of three 3,000-ton submarines, including the Dosan Ahn Chang-ho submarine set to be deployed later this year. The Ahn Chang-ho submarine is known to be capable of carrying six SLBMs.

North Korea has also been striving to deploy SLBMs -- a formidable nuclear delivery vehicle that can launch a stealthy retaliatory strike even after surviving a preemptive attack.

Source: https://en.yna.co.kr/view/AEN20220421008300325?section=search
 

Nilgiri

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View attachment 42960
South Korea's homegrown submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM) is test-fired from the Navy's 3,000-ton-class Dosan Ahn Chang-ho submarine at the ADD Anheung Test Center in South Chungcheong Province on Sept. 15, 2021, in this file photo provided by the Ministry of National Defense.

SEOUL, April 21 (Yonhap) -- South Korea successfully test-fired two submarine-launched ballistic missiles (SLBMs) consecutively earlier this week, government sources said Thursday, in a sign the missile is nearing its operational deployment.

The military launched the SLBMs at an interval of 20 seconds from the 3,000-ton Dosan Ahn Chang-ho submarine in the Yellow Sea on Monday, the sources said. They flew some 400 kilometers and hit the preset maritime targets.

The test came after the country successfully carried out an SLBM test-launch from the submarine in September last year, becoming the world's seventh country with homegrown SLBMs.

Suh Hoon, the director of the presidential National Security Office, is said to have observed Monday's test-firing.

The latest launch highlights progress being made in South Korea's efforts to deploy the new weapons system capable of launching surprise strikes at hostile targets.

The Navy has been working on deploying the first batch of three 3,000-ton submarines, including the Dosan Ahn Chang-ho submarine set to be deployed later this year. The Ahn Chang-ho submarine is known to be capable of carrying six SLBMs.

North Korea has also been striving to deploy SLBMs -- a formidable nuclear delivery vehicle that can launch a stealthy retaliatory strike even after surviving a preemptive attack.

Source: https://en.yna.co.kr/view/AEN20220421008300325?section=search

Excellent news. Fruitful progression of the korean sub program going for that size/scale in its SSK design to carry this midsection on the earlier HDW core.
 

Baljak

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Excellent news. Fruitful progression of the korean sub program going for that size/scale in its SSK design to carry this midsection on the earlier HDW core.
Research is also underway to increase the range of the currently develope Hyunmoo 4-4 SLBM to more than 3,000 km. If the range of the SLBM increases to 3,000 km, all parts of China will be within the range of the SLBM. I don't know what intentions are hidden. Perhaps there is a purpose to keep China and Japan in check as well as North Korea.
 

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Research is also underway to increase the range of the currently develope Hyunmoo 4-4 SLBM to more than 3,000 km. If the range of the SLBM increases to 3,000 km, all parts of China will be within the range of the SLBM. I don't know what intentions are hidden. Perhaps there is a purpose to keep China and Japan in check as well as North Korea.

Plenty of volume available in the canister for these ranges....so South Korea might as well unlock them and have it at hand.

Best have something you dont need than need something you dont have etc.

I suppose with time ROK will also develop cruise missile adapter for the SLBM canisters so you can task these SSK to SSGK rather than SSBK etc as required.

@Anmdt
 

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This thread is dedicated to the Hyunmoo 2, 4 and other South Korean ballistic missiles.
 

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