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Tanks are evolving, albeit slowly. Tank armour and protection systems have come a long way. However, cannons haven't changed much. Tank barrels have increased in diameter, with this trend continuing in the latest generation of tanks. However, the limit for practical round size has more or less climaxed. So what could be the next step to increase the lethality of cannons? Firstly, let's look at why tank cannons are still relevant in the age of guided missiles. While anti-tank guided-missiles (ATGMs) can knock out practically any tank, most newer tanks can resist 120mm HEAT, APFSDS or other barrel launched projectiles (in a frontal impact). So why not ditch tank cannons altogether? Here are some reasons why: Velocity: Rounds fired from tank barrels are much faster than ATGMs. For instance, the Rheinmetall Rh-120 can launch rounds at over 1700 meters per second. In comparison, the AGM-114 Hellfire travels at around 450 meters per second. Although unguided, there are circumstances...
 
Turkish Type Fast Attack Craft Project (Türk Tipi Hücumbot - TTHB, in Turkish), also known as Next Generation Fast Patrol Boat Project (NG-FBP) of the Turkish Navy first emerges in documents published by Undersecretariat of Defense Industries (now, Defense Industries Presidency) in 2008. The aim of the project is mentioned as; "Supplying future needs of the Turkish Navy, providing design of a new FAC for replacement of the aging classes" Background of the TTHB project, and early phase of the Request for Information addressed by SSM First tendencies by Turkish Navy was to acquire a Fast Attack Craft solution based on a composite structure that provides a light structure, naturally low RCS and IR & Acoustic signature and armor protection by Kevlar upgrade with ease. Yonca-Onuk, producer of the MRTP (Multi-role tactical platform) series of the boats, were the top-running choice. However, this tendency hasn't lasted. Initial plan was to acquire at least 6 boats with 4 options...
 
The Baltic States continue to enhance their defence capabilities. Their authorities feel threatened amid the current tensions between Russia and the West. Lithuania is particularly concerned by Russian troops in neighbouring Belarus. “This is an extremely worrying time not just for Lithuania but for all the NATO allies,” President Nauseda said. So, taking into account the complex political situation, Lithuanian leadership called on NATO member states to boost the Alliance’s enhanced forward presence in the region. Denmark decided to support Lithuania and send its four F-16 fighter jets to join NATO's Baltic air policing mission. According to Lithuanian President Gitanas Nauseda, this decision “comes at just the right time”. The Šiauliai Air Base of the Lithuanian Air Force on January, 28 hosted a welcome ceremony. The fighter planes will patrol Lithuanian air space until April 1 along with four Polish fighters that have been stationed there since December 1. Several exercises...
 
Brief history of Turkish LHD/LPD project Turkish Landing Helicopter Dock (LHD) project, in fact dating back to the 1990s, was referred as an Landing Platform Dock project which was planned to fulfill amphibious force transfer - projection needs of the Turkish Navy. In 2000s, the first sketches of the LPD has emerged, in a collaboration by STM (Subsidiary of Turkish Republic Defense Industry Presidency, back then secretariat) and Turkish Navy's project control office. The first designs were straight forward LPD design with a supper structure placed afore, 2 40 or 76mm naval cannons are present in the A-location with 1/2 Phalanx CIWS are present above the hangar and afore the bridge. The ship had covered side-bays capable of launching several RHIBS and Inspection boats / Landing boats, Hangar capable of storing 6/8 medium tonnes helicopter and a Dock capable of launching LCAC / LCM / Amphibious tracked vehicles. However, by 2010 the Turkish Navy's interest has shifted towards the...
 
Turkish Navy has commissioned the intelligence ship TCG Ufuk by a ceremony held in SNR Holding Istanbul Shipyard, the shipbuilding subcontractor elected by STM, with attendance of President Erdoğan, SSB President İsmail Demir and STM's manager Özgür Güleryüz. Before the TCG Ufuk the intelligence duties were mainly served by TCG Yunus (ex-West-Germany intelligence ship) and additionally ,rather partially, by TCG Cesme and TCG Candarli (Silas Bent Class survey ships). TCG Yunus has served in Turkish Navy between 1988-2000 and fulfilled ELINT-SIGINT duties, also were referred as "training and electronic survey ship" while TCG Cesme & TCG Candarlı is still in service and mainly functions as seismic / marine survey ships with limited SIGINT / COMINT capabilities. TCG Candarli, source; eugenio A588 Picture of TCG Yunus is rare, and little information is retrieved from her service in West-Germany navy. Source; Fatih Mehmet Kucuk (Twitter) The project dates back to 2009-2010, first...
 
Recent events such as Azerbaijan's victorious war against Armenia and the unprecedented expansion of the Turkic Council suggest that the Turkic world is inching towards unification. At the current pace, it is inevitable. In a war between the existing superpowers, control over the Turkic lands stretching from Central Asia to Thrace could prove to be decisive. Therefore, a unified Turkic entity would prove to be an indispensable strategic ally. In this article we will provide an outline of the Turkic World, the Turkic Council, the geopolitical situation surrounding the Turkic nations and why the Turkic nations are set to become powerful. A summary of today's Turkic world Starting from the far eastern border of Kazakhstan, straddling over Asia Minor across to Thrace, the Turkic world is without a doubt, vast. However, it does not stop at Turkey's border with Greece and Bulgaria. Hungary, which lays in Central Europe also sees itself as part of the Turkic World. Not to mention Turkic...
 
By Falcon Slayers Apr 15· 30 min read An unofficial rendering of the Advanced Medium Combat Aircraft based on the actual design AMCA or the Advanced Medium Combat Aircraft is a fifth-generation fighter aircraft which will be manufactured by HAL. The AMCA programme is envisaged as replacement for a host of aircraft currently operated by the IAF as well as to fill gaps left by retirement of the Dassault Mirage 2000s, SEPECAT Jaguars and Mig-27s. ADA describes the AMCA as a “multirole combat aircraft for air superiority, point air defense, deep penetration/strike, special missions”. Unofficial design work on the AMCA started in 2008 with official work started in 2011 and completed in 2014. In 2008 Indian Navy also showed interest in the naval variant of AMCA. All the design work is completed and HAL has started the manufacturing of the AMCA Prototypes, starting with the manufacturing of avionics and subsystems. The broad requirements outlined for the AMCA are to incorporate a...
Here is an article for forum members consumption. FUTURE CANADIAN SUBMARINE OPTIONS AFTER the “VICTORIA CLASS”….WHAT NEXT? David Dunlop: This article is strickly the opinion of the writer and not intended for media publication. Canadian submarine interests are divided into three categories: the defence of Canada and North America, supporting Canadian expeditionary deployments to joint action ashore and Canada’s interest in global maritime stability. Recent Russian Submarine Fleet global excursions and increased Russian activities in the air and at sea, has given NATO great concern about the security of the North Atlantic. The NATO alliance aspires to have more control of the North Atlantic by establishing a new NATO Advisory Council (NAC) Joint Force Command in July 2019 with Canada as a major player[1]. Modern characteristics of 21ST Century submarines are: endurance, stealth, freedom of movement and versatility. The best sensor weapon that gives others pause is without...
 
Military technology is an ever-changing landscape. New developments pose previously unseen threats to militaries all over the world, forcing decision-makers to improvise. Mainstays of today's military forces may fall out of favour, much like the dreadnaughts from the early 20th century. Many militaries haven't evolved significantly since the Cold War. Though technology has come a long way, a momentous leap hasn't happened. However, recent events suggest the next major evolution in warfare is already beginning. As a result, any serious regional or global power must plan their procurements masterfully; not doing so will be akin to pouring billions down the drain, arming up with weapons fit for a bygone era. Drones saw action in reconnaissance missions for many decades. The first time a drone targeted combatants was in the early 2000s when the USA deployed MQ-1 Predator drones in Afghanistan and Yemen. Since then, drones have been relegated to low-intensity, counterinsurgency...
 
IDEF'21 (15th fair) has been held in the August, 2021 and in this article we will have a brief look at the naval systems that has been on the display. We will start with Naval platforms of different sizes, then talk about naval weapon systems spanning from cannons to remote controlled stations and finally talk about software and sensors that specifically introduced for naval platforms. Naval Platforms, ongoing projects and concepts TF-2000 AAW Destroyer Before all, in the last IDEF we have seen the latest configuration and design update on the two ongoing, major projects of the Turkish Navy; Istanbul Class frigate and TF-2000 AAW destroyer. I-Class had visible differences on the mast from the earlier released concepts, which was also noticed when the first hull is launched in January 2021, in IDEF the details of the mast and equipment to be installed has been revealed. TF-2000, on the other hand, has been through some remarkable changes in the design with the inclusion of the...
 
How can Artillery Numbers today relate to Universal Education yesterday? Analysis on the Guns versus Butter impact over time. By: "Nilgiri" Prelude https://defencehub.live/threads/indian-army-artillery-archive.1564/page-4 "Crixus": "Nilgiri": "Crixus": Introduction Artillery (including its self-propelled version) is something that often comes up in the discussion of any armed force today given its critical nature as a basic force multiplier (notably since the impact and lessons of the Napoleonic wars). If there is a matter of deep scarcity (any combination of past, current and projected) regarding it, one must dig to get to the root causes of why it is so, given the critical nature of such to the security and defense paradigm at large. The deepest of all root causes generally are those regarding "Guns versus Butter" arguments in the realm of opportunity costs, the development of political forces and institutions designed to serve this and their sovereign control...
 
The EU is looking more toothless than ever before. Meanwhile, the USA has been hit by a worrying crisis which may cripple it for years. The western world is facing major hurdles. However, there is light at the end of the tunnel. Meet CANZUK. A theoretical union between Canada, Australia, New Zealand and the United Kingdom. Just a hundred years ago, the British Empire was the foremost global power. By the year 1920, the British held over 35 million square kilometres of land. Making their empire the largest in world history. At its peak, the phrase "the empire on which the sun never sets" was often used to describe the British Empire; a testament to just how large and widespread its territory was. However, after two world wars, the United Kingdom was superseded by its ally, the United States of America. For decades following the Second World War, The USA and the USSR became the two competing superpowers. The UK still held significant power but was losing its colonial territories. As...
 
Milgem - National Warship / Milli Gemi - is (was) project that aims to gain abilities and self-sufficiency on the following matters that can be told to be critical within the framework of flotilla design. Design attributes of a warship - advanced simulations for signature and survivability Concept of a warship Design verification of a warship Software development for a warship Production and maintenance plans and exercises of a warship The project has emerged in the 70s, without being named or being called such, with the question asked by an admiral in power " Could we design a corvette by our-own, tailored for us, made by us?" and then repeatedly came into the office or into the minds and debates but had been abandoned for several reasons. Finally, at last in the end of 90s the project has emerged in a solid way aiming to develop ,initially, a corvette that suits need of Turkish Navy and fulfills future doctrine, equipped with cutting edge weapons and sensors with maximum local...
 
This article is an opinion piece only written by the author. Dedicated Humanitarian Assistance/Disaster Relief (HA/DR) Ships Canada has the longest coastline on the planet and a proud maritime heritage. However, it is the only G7 country without a true amphibious sealift capability. It has been said that a self-contained sea-based amphibious force is the best kind of fire extinguisher because of its flexibility, reliability, logistics simplicity and relative economy. Amphibious capability is the ability to transport and launch troops and vehicles via ships and aircraft, as well as launching of ground-targeted weapons from sea. An amphibious sealift capability is not something that Canada envisions, but it is something that Canada needs. There are two larger issues: what political, economic, and security interests are Canadian naval forces intended to serve? And what is to be the RCNs distinctive contribution to Canada’s national security in this new century? It is thought that...
Are We Losing the North? Canadian Arctic Security and Sovereignty Note: This Article is the opinion of the Author only, and not the opinion of any group or media outlet Due to its increasing accessibility resulting from climate change, the Arctic may become a contested and militarized arena where states within the region and beyond attempt to secure access to lucrative shipping routes and resources. Such an eventuality poses particular challenges to Canada, raising the spectre that Canadian sovereignty in the North could be irrevocably compromised. Canada’s legal title to its Arctic territories is well established, however given the increased interest and anticipated activity in the Arctic, Canada will need to increase its presence in the region. Along with an enhanced presence, it is also imperative that Canada has the ability to survey, and be aware, of what transpires on, underneath and above its Arctic domain. Over the years, the United States has questioned Canada’s claims...
 
As a continuation/Part-2 of "A Brief History of Indian Orbital Rockets" (https://defencehub.live/threads/a-brief-history-of-indian-orbital-rockets.8461/), this part covers those programs that are still to come. NOTE: As with the preceding article, I will only be mentioning those programs that aim to develop a full-fledged orbital launch capability as their primary goal; as such programs like the Nano Satellite Launch Vehicle (NSLV) which in the opinion of this author are primarily aimed at a Sub-orbital launch capability, have been excluded. Small Satellite Launch Vehicle (SSLV) 2021-2022 Diagrams from official SSLV Brochures While ISRO’s focus has rightfully been on increasing the size & payload capacity of its rockets, it hasn’t forgotten the commercial & strategic implications of a small, launch-on-demand rocket system that can greatly reduce both the cost & lead team it generally takes to put a satellite into orbit – and neither has the Government of India forgotten the...
 
NOTE: In this compilation I'm only going to mention orbital-rated launch vehicles, as such any sub-orbital launchers/sounding rockets will not be mentioned. I'm going to divide this into two parts. The first part will cover the history up till this point, the second part will talk about where things are going. Satellite Launch Vehicle (SLV) 1979 After launching its first RH-series sounding rocket in 1967, ISRO (then known as INCOSPAR until 1969) set out to develop its first orbital rocket, and achieved this goal in 1979. The SLV, otherwise known by its unit designation SLV-3, was a four-stage rocket with all-solid propulsion, and was the first orbital flight-rated Indian rocket. The SLV only had 4 launches and could never develop into a successful launch system, but it had far-reaching implications for both the civilian space sector as well as the development of the Integrated Guided Missile Development Program (IGMDP) in the 80s and 90s that gave rise to Prithvi & Agni...
Re-Examining Cross Examination A Legal Study into the Nuances of Cross Examination By Usman Khan Yousafzai Table of Contents Introduction ......................................................................................................................1 PART I: Lacunas Present in Cross Examination Law........................................................ 2 Chapter One: Unproduced Document..................................................................... 2 Chapter Two: Unmarked Public Document............................................................. 7 Chapter Three: Fact Not subjected to Cross Examination..............................................9 Chapter Four: Rights of Cross Examinationer....................................................... 11 Chapter Five: Conclusion....................................................................................... 13 Introduction Cross Examination is the interrogation/questioning of a witness by the...
Introduction Ensuring the strong naval presence and military deterrent of the United States also means guaranteeing that American troops will get the supplies they depend on, no matter where confrontation may arise. As a key provider of surge forces to crisis locations around the world, United States Transportation Command (USTRANSCOM) must confront any and all potential challengers it might face in the 21st century, specifically the rising maritime power of the People’s Republic of China. Challenges USTRANSCOM could face in this regard are threefold—the aging and inadequate nature of the American sealift force, the vulnerability of said forces to strategic chokepoints in the event of conflict, and the versatility and strength of the Chinese People’s Armed Forces Maritime Militia (PAFMM). Aging Forces and Recapitalizing Sealift The growing age of the ships available to the United States for sealift operations is perhaps one of its most obvious and most dangerous problems. With...
 
News of the F-35 program being labelled a "failure" has shocked many. But news outlets haven't mentioned the elephant in the room; manned air-to-ground attack aircraft are becoming obsolete, and the F-35 doesn't cut it as an air superiority fighter. Intended to replace the F-16 as the USA's main multirole fighter, the F-35 has been a long-awaited upgrade for the USAF. However, doubts about its performance have been circulating for years. Skyrocketing costs have also been among the major complaints by critics. Truth be told, the F-35 is highly advanced. It is packed with the latest sensors, has a small RCS and an intuitive cockpit. However, all the extra equipment has made the F-35 heavy. Being single-engined, this extra weight is problematic. The thrust-to-weight ratio simply isn't good enough for dogfights, even against the decades-old F-16. In response to criticism, F-35 office spokesman Joe DellaVedova, explained: “The F-35’s technology is designed to engage, shoot and kill...
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